Why use Biomarkers?
What are they?
While there has been ongoing debate about the precise definition of a biomarker, this debate has not diminished their value in numerous clinical contexts.
Broadly speaking, a biomarker can be defined as a biological molecule present in blood, body fluids, or tissues, which serves as an indicator of normal or abnormal biological processes, including signs of a disease. Biomarkers can play a crucial role in assessing how a body responds to treatments for various diseases and conditions.
How are they best used in clinical practice?
While some biomarkers are highly specific, others like acute phase proteins (APPs), exemplified by C-reactive protein (CRP), gain clinical significance due to their lack of specificity. CRP levels in the blood can dramatically increase or decrease in response to various clinical conditions, offering real-time snapshots of disease progression or resolution. Convenient point-of-care CRP testing allows for objective monitoring of treatment efficacy, guiding adjustments when needed.
Unlike semiquantitative tests like lateral flow devices, the SPARCLTM CRP assay is highly sensitive and can measure a wide range of biomarker concentrations, making it ideal for disease monitoring. CRP’s lack of specificity means it can monitor numerous diseases with a single test, requiring only a small blood sample, making it suitable for smaller breeds. Some practices even use residual blood samples for baseline CRP measurements, followed by ongoing longitudinal monitoring through owner-collected urine or fecal samples.
CRP, produced by the liver in response to inflammation, serves as a versatile disease monitoring biomarker. Its levels reflect responses to various conditions, aiding in treatment assessment. Increasing levels post-treatment indicate the need for alternative therapies, while decreasing levels signal treatment success. Examples include monitoring antibiotic responses, steroid treatments, and post-surgical recovery.
At PraecisDx, we’re introducing a range of biomarker tests based on the rapid SPARCLTM luminescence platform. Some are generic, like CRP for monitoring, while others are diagnostic tools. By combining specific and generic biomarkers, we aim to provide rapid diagnostic decisions and ongoing treatment monitoring from the outset.
Biomarkers Launching Soon
|Biomarkers in canine inflammatory bowel disease diagnostics
|Investigation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of canine procalcitonin
|Development of a time-resolved fluorometry based immunoassay for the determination of canine haptoglobin in various body fluids
|A Clinical Investigation on Serum Amyloid A Concentration in Client-Owned Healthy and Diseased Cats in a Primary Care Animal Hospital
|Cardiac troponin-I concentration in dogs with cardiac disease
|The Utility of Acute‐Phase Proteins in the Assessment of Treatment Response in Dogs With Bacterial Pneumonia
|Serum haptoglobin concentrations in feline inflammatory bowel disease and small-cell alimentary lymphoma: a potential biomarker for feline chronic enteropathies
|Cardiovascular-renal axis disorder and acute-phase proteins in cats with congestive heart failure caused by primary cardiomyopathy
|The use of faecal lactoferrin as a marker of intestinal inflammation in dogs with chronic enteropathy
|Evaluation of Basal Serum or Plasma Cortisol Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs
C-reactive Protein (CRP):
- Assessment of severity and changes in C-reactive protein concentration and various biomarkers in dogs with pancreatitis.
- Quik Read go for C-reactive protein testing in primary care.
- Comparison of serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein as diagnostic markers of systemic inflammation in dogs.
- Plasma procalcitonin concentration in healthy calves and those with septic systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
- Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus Syndrome.
- Biomarker Guided Diagnosis of Septic Peritonitis in Dogs.
- Procalcitonin Detection in Veterinary Species: Investigation of Commercial ELISA Kits.
- Troponin is a biomarker that is found in the blood when heart muscles become damaged, and its levels increase as the damage progresses.
SAA (Serum Amyloid A) Canine:
- SAA Canine is a biomarker for tissue injury and many inflammatory diseases, increasing in response to tissue damage or inflammation.
- Serum haptoglobin levels increase with most types of inflammation in dogs. However, sustained elevated haptoglobin is seen in canine lymphatic neoplasms, making it a particularly useful biomarker for monitoring remission and recurrence in these cancers.
- Similar to dogs, serum haptoglobin in cats has been used to monitor treatment and remission of chronic gastric enteropathies, including alimentary lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease.
AGP (Alpha1-Acid Glycoprotein) Feline:
- This biomarker increases in FCov-positive cats and can occur a few days before FIP becomes clinically apparent.
- Serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration in non-symptomatic cats with feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection.
- The feline acute phase reaction.
SAA (Serum Amyloid A) Feline:
- SAA Feline is a biomarker for tissue injury and many inflammatory diseases, increasing in response to tissue damage or inflammation.